Showing posts with label Chung Keng Quee. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Chung Keng Quee. Show all posts

Monday, 12 November 2012

Khoo Thean Tek 邱天德

Khoo Thean Tek

There are two variant accounts on the birth time of Khoo Thean Tek (also spelled as Khoo Thean Teik). According to Wright (1907), Khoo Thean Tek was born in 1826. However, in the Straits Settlements Law Reports, it was verified that Khoo Thean Tek was born in April 1818 in Penang. Khoo Thean Tek was the third son of Khoo Guat Cheow (邱月照). He had five brothers, namely, Khoo Thean Hoe (邱天厚), Khoo Thean Chai (邱天财), Khoo Thean Seng (邱天生), Khoo Thean Poh (邱天保) and Khoo Thean Lye (邱天来). Khoo Thean Tek was belonged to Hai Teoh Pang, a sub-lineage of his family clan.

Khoo Thean Tek died on 8 April 1890 in Penang, living behind seven sons (including one adopted son) and four daughters. He first married Chew Hong Neo as her principal wife, and after her death, he married Ooi Lean Keow (黄娇娘) and had her as his principal wife. Besides, the principal wife, Khoo Thean Thek had many other secondary wives (t’sip) distributed all over Federated Malay States and Straits Settlements, respectively.

As Khoo Thean Tek’s two eldest sons died before him in 1880s, thus his third son (later the fourth son) Khoo Hun Yeang took over the management of the family’s estates. Khoo Hun Yeang worked at his father coconut estates in Province Wellesley for some time before moved to George Town and engaged in Opium & Spirit Farms and had tin mining interest in Perak, his business was carried out under the firm Chin Lee & Co. Khoo Hun Yeang was the Vice-Chairman, Penang Chinese Town Hall, as well a Board Member of the Kek Lok Si and the Cheng Hoon Giam Temple (Snake Temple). Later he moved to Kuching, Sarawak and involved in the construction industry. The main street, Khoo Hun Yeang Road, which he built in Kuching was named after him. Khoo Hun Yeang died in Medan at the age of 57 years. He was buried in Kampung Bahru, Penang, at his family burial ground. 

On 8 December 1888, Khoo Thean Tek executed three settlements of immovable property. One of these settlements, ‘Family Residence Settlement’ was declared void by a decree dated 19 July 1895 and made in Suit No. 202 of 1894. The other two valid settlements were referred to as the ‘Real Estate Settlement’ and the ‘Boon Eow Tong Settlement.’ By the Real Estate Settlement, Khoo Thean Tek, in consideration of the natural love and affection which he had towards his brothers (Thean Poh & Thean Lye) children and grandchildren conveyed certain immovable property the trustees to be held during the joint lives of certain named persons and the life of the survivor and a term of 21 years from the death of the survivor upon trusts. 

Khoo Thean Tek who received Chinese education was a well-known figure in the history of Malaysia. His pivotal role in the Chinese social and political influence had shaped the demography in Penang and Perak. He was referred as a leader for a notorious secret society in the early seventeenth century known as Kean Tek Tong Society (Tua Pek Kong), in which he succeeded Khoo Teng Pang.  Khoo Thean Tek was also a key figure in Hai San (a secret society) had involved in the Penang Riots in 1867. He was initially sentenced to death, but due to the consideration of his political and social influences, his sentence was lowered to imprisonment for a period of 7 years, and he was banished to Singapore (Pieris, 2002) for causing the riots and kiosks raged in Penang and Perak during 1862 until 1873. There are various accounts in the judgment of Khoo's trial. Khoo whom was the leader of Tua Pek Kong, a society with members largely formed from wealthy Hokkien merchants (many were authorized licensees in dealing weapon and gun powers businesses) were in favour by the British (due to the fact that these Hokkien merchants were naturalized British subject). And it is not the colonial's policy to provoke public anger, especially one that concerns of an important figure (Cowan, 1961). Thus, the actual execution of the sentences were justified but remained in a very low profile. According to Wynne (1941), it was said the sentences were lasted for 18 months in between the Christmas until Chinese New Year and not 7 years as reported in other resources.

Khoo Thean Tek in his later life had actively involved in business affairs, where he in partnership with Chung Keng Quee ventured tin mining in Larut, Perak. His firms Khoon Ho (坤和) and Chin Bee & Co. (振美公司) were engaged in sugar and coconut plantations (Province Wellesley), opium farming (Hong Kong & Penang) and tin mining (Perak). He was also a member in the Board of Directors of the Khean Guan Insurance Company, the first Chinese insurance company in the Straits Settlements. Apart from business affairs, he also actively involved in social welfare, and in 1851 he was a Trustee of Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi (his family clan temple), and founder of Boon San Tong Khoo Kongsi (Parentage Society of Khoo Clan) in 1878, to honour his branch patriarch, Khoo Kong Oon, a fifth generation of Khoo Chian Eng.  During the early establishment of the Penang Chinese Town Hall in 1881, Khoo Thean Tek was its Chairman, he also became a trustee of the Ong Seng Temple, and Hokkien Public Cemetery. 

Due to his invaluable contributions to his family clan temple, a large estate at Ayer Itam owned by Leong San Tong was named after him. On the other hand, Thean Teik Road in Penang was named in honour for his contributions in the development of Penang economy. 

Sons:
First born son: Khoo Hun Kang 邱汉江 (died around 1880s) ~ no issue
Second born son: Khoo Hun Chin 邱汉津 (died around 1880s) ~ 3 adopted sons
Third born son: Khoo Hun Tee also known as Edward Edwin Gaudoin (Godyne) (22 January 1854 – 1906)
Fourth born son: Khoo Hun Yeang 邱汉阳 (1859 – 1917) ~ 8 sons
Fifth born son: Khoo Hun Yeam (?? – 1922)
Sixth born son: Khoo Hun Eng

Adopted son: 
Khoo Hun Boh

Daughters: 
Khoo Suan See married Lim Seng Kim second son of Lim Chooi Chuan

Grandsons: 
Khoo Hooi Leong son of Khoo Hun Tee
Khoo Siew Jin (b. 1884) son of Khoo Hun Yeang
Khoo Siew Ghee son of Khoo Hun Yeang
Khoo Siew Kok son of Khoo Hun Yeam
Khoo Hooi Hye son of Khoo Hun Eng

Adopted grandsons: 
Khoo Ngay Tuan 邱雅端 son of Khoo Hun Chin
Khoo Ngay Tean 邱雅殿 son of Khoo Hun Chin
Khoo Heng Quee aka Khoo Hean Quee 邱显贵

Grand daughters:
Khoo Chye Lian 邱彩莲 daughter of Khoo Hun Chin

Great grandsons: 
Khoo Seng Kay (b. 1905 - 1925) son of Khoo Siew Jin

Relatives: 
Khoo Thean Poh (1833 – 21 January 1919)
Mrs Khoo Thean Poh (Madam Toh Bee Beng 杜媚明)
Mrs Khoo Thean Choe’s (d. 22 July 1911)
Mrs Khoo Thean Chai (Madam Goh Hui Neo 吴惠娘)
Khoo Hun Eng's mother (Madam Boey Kooi Lan 梅桂兰)
Khoo Chin Keat son of Khoo Thean Poh
Khoo Hong Swee, Khoo Hun Yeang’s cousin
Khoo Sian Tan son of Khoo Hong Swee
Mrs Khoo Ngay Tean (Madam Yong Tuan Neo 杨端娘)
Khoo Bin Tuan second daughter of Khoo Chin Keat married Tan Bah Teik

Source of Reference:
  1. Khoo Hooi Leong v. Khoo Chong Yeok, Privy Council Straits Settlements Law Report (p. 129) 
  2. Re Khoo Thean Tek’s Settlements 1928, Supreme Court, Straits Settlements Law Report (pp. 51 - 52)
  3. Wright, A. (1907). Twentieth Century Impressions of British Malaya: Its History, People, Commerce, Industries, and Resources (p. 156)
  4. Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi Penang 
  5. Tan, K.H. (2007). The Chinese in Penang: A Pictorial History. Penang: Areca Books (p.101)
  6. Wynne, M.L. (1941) Triad and Tabut: A Study of the Origin and Diffusion of Chinese and Mohamedan Secret Societies in the Malay peninsular AD 1800-1935, Singapore: Government Printing Office
  7. Cowan, C.D. (1961) Nineteenth Century Malaya: The Origins of British Political Control. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  8. Emerson, R. (1969) Malaysia: A Study in Direct and Indirect Rule. Singapore: University of Malaya
  9. Pieris, A. (2002) Doubtful Associations: Reviewing Penang through the 1867 Riots. In Penang Story, Paper presented at International Conference 2002 18-21 April 2002, The City Bayview Hotel, Penang, Malaysia. The Penang Heritage Trust & STAR Publications
*1st Revision: 5 February 2013
*2nd Revision: 6 February 2013

Friday, 2 October 2009

The Chinese Kapitans In Malay States 马来亚华人甲必丹

According to historical records, the Kapitan post was originally created during the Portuguese and Dutch rules in Malacca and the Dutch East Indies . The then colonialists needed a smooth administration in their colonies, but the fact was they were unable to do so without the help from the local residents. And for the reason that their colonies had the status as international trading ports, thus, merchants from all around the globe will have trade there. As a solution to enhance the better understanding between the colonists and the trading community, the post of Kapitan or also known as today's 'ambassador' was established to represent the county they belonged to. The Kapitan is not only limited to the Chinese from China, but there are also Kapitans for India, Arab, Java, etc.

This Kapitan system was later adopted by the British in their early administration in the Malay states and colonies in the Straits Settlements. The office of the Kapitan of China was designated as the representative of the Chinese business community outside mainland China. The Kapitan of China means the chief for all Chinese, and only had the power of attorney in a particular state in overseas. For instance, in Malaysia, the state of Kedah, Perak, Kuala Lumpur (for Selangor), Sungei Ujong (Ngeri Sembilan), Malacca, etc. had their own choice of Chinese leaders. The Kapitan post was elected by the Chinese business community and appointed by the colonial ruler on behalf of the Malay Sultans and Rajahs. The Kapitan will be given an official seal (chop) to perform his duty and styled after the Imperial Qing court. 

During this time, the Kapitan was responsibled in collecting taxes from the Chinese merchants on behalf for the local Malay rulers. The Kapitan also has the power of attorney in governing and making laws for his own settlements. The Kapitan's formal attire was in accord to the Imperial Qing Dynasty Mandarin Officer style, where a resemblance of a headgear with a peacock feather and a dark silk robe with ranking symbol. This unique post was later abolished in the early 1900s. However, today the Kapitan post still exist in the Borneo Island, particularly in Sarawak.

CHINESE KAPITANS OF MALACCA
(1572 - 1617) Tay Hong Yong (Tay Kie Ki) - Appointed by the Portuguese)
(1614 - 1688) Li Wei King (Koon Chang)
(1662 - 1708) Lee Chiang Hou (Chong Kian)
(1643 - 1718) Chan Ki Lock (Chan Lak Kua)
(1725 - 1765) Chan Hian Kway (Kwang Hwee)
(1703 - 1784) Tan Seng Yong
(1748 - 1794) Tan Ki Hou (Siang Lian)
(1750 - 1802) Chua Su Cheong (Tok Ping)
(1771 - 1882) Chan Yew Liang (Keng Sin)

CHINESE KAPITANS OF PENANG
(1787 - 1826) Koh Lay Huan 辜禮歡 (the first Kapitan for Penang)
(1894 - 1908) Cheah Ching Hui 謝清輝
(1908 - 1918) Cheah Yong Chong 謝榮宗

CHINESE KAPITANS OF KUALA LUMPUR
(1858 - 1861) Hiu Siew 丘秀
(1862 - 1868) Liu Ngim Kong 刘壬光
(1868 - 1885) Yap Ah Loy (Yap Tet Loy) 叶亚来
(1885 - 1889) Yap Ah Shak (Yap Chee Ying) 叶致英
(1889 - 1902) Yap Kwan Seng 叶观盛

CHINESE KAPITANS OF KUALA TRENGGANU
(1736 - 1820) Teo Tioh Eng (Zhang Zhaorong)
(1782 - ?) Kow Geok Seng
(1798 - 1847) Lim Eng Huat
(1810 - ?) Kow Teck Lee
Low Kian Tee
(? - 1899) Wee Teck Siew
Kow Swee Leng

CHINESE KAPITANS OF JOHOR
(1845 - 1857) Tan Kee Soon (Kapitan of Tebrau)
(1859 - 1869) Tan Cheng Hung (Kapitan of Tebrau)
(1869 - ?) Seah Tee Heng (Kapitan of Sekudai)
(1870 - 1875) Tan Hiok Nee (Major China / Kapitan of Johor Bahru) 
Lim Ah Siang
(? - 1917) Lin Jin He
CHINESE KAPITANS OF PERLIS
Lee Lei Kam (The only Kapitan of Perlis)

CHINESE KAPITANS OF PERAK
(1830 - ?) Tan Ah Hun 陈亚汉
(1875 - 1900) Chung Keng Quee 鄭景貴
(1875 - 1899) Chin Ah Yam (Chin Seng Yam)
(1886 - 1906) Khaw Boo Aun @ Khaw Ewe Kuang
(1930 -1935) Chung Thye Phin 鄭大平

CHINESE KAPITANS OF KELANTAN
Leung Cheng Wat (Wee Chai)

OTHER CHINESE KAPITANS
(? - 1922) Wee Hee Hoon (Kapitan of Bagan Api Api in Dumai, Riau), he died at the age of 46, leaving behind seven children. 
(? - 1924) Oey Teng Kiang (Kapitan of Palembang, Sumatra)
Wee Leong Tan (Kapitan of Selat Panjang, Sumatra)
(1915 - 1925) Wee Boon Teng (Kapitan of Selat Panjang, Sumatra)
Foo Pak Yin (Kapitan of Brunei)
Koh Heen (Kapitan of Sandakan)
Oei Leong Tan (Kapitan of Bengkalis)
Ng Eng Kee (Kapitan of Singapore) he had four sons (Quee Gam, Quee Lam, Quee Hock and Quee Teng) and 23 grandchildren


Yap Ah Loy
Kapitan Yap Ah Loy (or Yap Tet Loy) was the third Chinese Kapitan of Kuala Lumpur, served from 1868 until 1885 and was a member of the notorious triad of Hai San. Born on 14 March 1837 in Dan Shui Village, Guiye District, Huizhou Prefecture, Guangdong Province, Yap Ah Yap was belonged to the Huizhou Hakka clan.

(1837-03-14)




Yap Hon Chin (Yap Ah Loy's son)
Yap Loong Shoon (Yap Ah Loy's son)

Yap Ah Shak
Kapitan Yap Ah Shak (or Yap Chee Ying) was the fourth Chinese Kapitan of Kuala Lumpur. Yap Ah Shak of Hakka origin was born in Huizhou Prefecture, Guangdong Province in China. His career as Chinese Kapitan had begun in Sungei Ujong (now the State of Negri Sembilan). His appointment as the Kapitan of Sungei Ujong was supported by Wong Ying, a famous Guangdong miner cum merchant and his allies. The appointment of Yap Ah Shak as the Kapitan was linked to a coup-de-tet against the then Kapitan Sam Meng Lei. Kapitan Sam Meng Lei was an incapable leader in Sungei Ujong, he was trapped in between the waged civil wars between the two Rajahs in Sungei Ujong and subsequently killed during the strike. It was said that, Kapitan Sam Meng Lei had lost his popularity, when he could not voice-out the dissatisfaction among the Chinese merchants regarding with the increase of revenue income imposed by the Malay rulers. However, the problem was never solved dynamically by Yap Ah Shak, because due to the invitation of Kapitan Yap Ah Loy of Kuala Lumpur to appoint him as the assistant and overseer of Yap Ah Loy's mines and coolies. Therefore, Yap Ah Shak left Sungei Ujong, after less than a year service. According to some records, the reason Yap Ah Shak left Sungei Ujong, was probably he knew that there will be brighter future in Kuala Lumpur rather than in Sungei Ujong. Yap Ah Shak died in 1889 and passed the Kapitan office to his best friend, Yap Kwan Seng. Yap Ah Shak had three sons and one daughter, Yap Loong Hin, Yap Futt Yew, Yap Chin Fook and Yap Tenga.
Yap Loong Hin, Yap Ah Shak's son
Yap Loong Hin, J.P. 

Yap Loong Hin was the eldest son of Yap Ah Shak. Born in 1873 in Kuala Lumpur, Yap Loong Hin was the Head of Yap Clan, owner of tin mines in several Malay states, trustee and the president of many educational and social institutions in Selangor. Yap Loong Hin had five wives, three sons, three daughters and 11 grandchildren. He died in 1937 and was buried at the Birch Road Chinese Cemetery. 
  

Yap Kwan Seng
Kapitan Yap Kwan Seng was the fifth Chinese Kapitan of Kuala Lumpur and also marked as the last one upon his death. Famously known as the last Chinese Kapitan of Kuala Lumpur, Yap Kwan Seng was also famed for his philanthropic contributions in economics, educations, social and health welfare in British Malaya.Yap Kwan Seng of Hakka origin was originated from Liangpoi Village, Chixi Township, Taishan County, Zhuhai Prefecture, Guangdong Province in China, where he was born there in 1846. He was the eldest son of Yap Hoin Yin. Yap Kwan Seng first arrived in Malaya at the age of 16 years. He first arrived at Malacca to visit a friend and learning the great success in managing tin mining in Malaya. The curious young Yap Kwan Seng, was then decided to remain in the country after spending some time in assisting Kapitan Yap Ah Shak.Yap Kwan Seng later commenced tin mining own his own account and was successfully in securing from the government in monopolizing the State Selangor Farms (Opium & Liquor). In 1888, on the death of Kapitan Yap Ah Shak, subsequently, Yap Kwan Seng was elected to replace the Kapitan office. He was given a seat on the Selangor State Council and Kuala Lumpur Sanitary Board. Yap Kwan Seng died at his residence at Kuala Lumpur in 1901, leaving a family of fifteen sons and ten daughters, and estates valued at several million dollars. His estates were left in trust to Messrs. Teh Seow Teng, Tong Tung and Yap Tai Kee (his eldest son). Yap Tai Kee died shortly after his father and his position was taken by the second son, Yap Tai Cheong.

Chin Seng Yam
Kapitan Chin Seng Yam (陈亚炎) or commonly known as Chin Ah Yam (of Ho Hup Seah) was a famous Chinese Kapitan of Perak. He was a powerful leader of a notorious triad of Ghee Hin during the early 1850s. His main opponent was Kapitan Chung Keng Quee of Hai San triad. Chin Ah Yam of Dapu Hakka origin, was given a seat in the first Perak State Council and earned the title Kapitan following with his appointment. Chin Ah Yam was originally a Hakka chief in Larut District of Perak, where he represented the Ghee Hin tribe based in Penang. Chin Ah Yam of Ghee Hin and Chung Keng Quee of Hai San were a long time enemies, they fought for power and control of tin mining rights in Perak. However, their little quarrels had never thought that it could lead to a great turbulence to the State's economy by waging a series of twelve years wars. In the late 1880s, the importance of Ghee Hin in Larut had ceased, with the control of tin mines was transited to the Hai San. Following with the British Colonial intervention in Perak for peace keeping, in January 1874, the infamous Pangkor Treaty was signed among the two leaders of the triads and the Malay rulers and chiefs and marked the end of the Chinese wars. Where Chin Ah Yam, signed a separate Chinese Engagement at Pangkor, undertaking to cease the wars between the two triads, resulted Chin and his triads were immunized from the obligation to pay the claim for causing chaos in the State, thus gaining more popularity from his triad members. Before, Chin Ah Yam died in 1899, it was said that he had visited England. The Chin family later spelled their surname as Chan. Chin Ah Yam's children were Chin Guang De, Chin Guang Yuan, Chin Yu Lin, Chin Yuet Ming, Chin Yuet Qing and Chin Ng Zi.

Chung Keng Quee
Kapitan Chung Keng Quee or commonly known as Chung Ah Kwi was one of the early Chinese Kapitans in Perak. He was the chief of the Hakka miners in Larut District and the headman of Hai San triad society.